Definitions of Square Dance Calls and Concepts
Diamond Formation | Circulate [Plus]

A Diamond is a 4-dancer formation that can be setup from a Line of 4 after Centers Hinge.

A Diamond consists of two Centers (those with handholds), and two Ends (also known as Points).

Diamond Formation:

 Diamond Footprints Typical facing directions
 R-H Diamond L-H Diamond Facing Diamond

Diamond Circulate [Plus] (Dewey Berry 1972): From a Diamond. Walk forward to the next position in the Diamond while turning 90° toward the center of the Diamond. Centers become Points and vice-versa. Dancers facing along the Circulate path pass Right-Shoulders with each other.

From a R-H Diamond:

 beforeDiamond Circulate after
From a L-H Diamond:

 beforeDiamond Circulate after
From Facing Diamonds:

 beforeDiamond Circulate part-way after
From Facing Diamonds, always pass right-shoulders.

Diamonds typically occur in pairs.

• Twin Diamonds are adjacent along the short axis.
• Point-to-Point Diamonds are adjacent along the long axis.

 Twin Diamonds
 Point-to-Point Diamonds

Notes:
• If you are a Center of the Diamond, hold hands with the other center in your Diamond.
• If you are a Point, use your inside hand to point downward toward the center of your Diamond. Do not touch hands with anyone in your Diamond.
• The handhold or lack thereof is important because most Diamond calls are defined in terms of Points and Centers. That is, Points do this, and Centers do that. If your hand location is incorrect, it may cause confusion as to who does which part.

At Plus, there are three calls done exclusively from Diamonds:

• Diamond Circulate [Plus] (Dewey Berry 1972): From a Diamond. Walk forward to the next position in the Diamond while turning 90° toward the center of the Diamond. Centers become Points and vice-versa. Dancers facing along the Circulate path pass Right-Shoulders with each other.
• Flip The Diamond [Plus] (Deuce Williams 1973): From a Diamond. Centers do your part Diamond Circulate as Points Flip In (180°) towards the the nearest Center position. A normal Diamond ends in a Wave.
• Cut The Diamond [Plus] (Lee Kopman 1973): From a Diamond. Centers do your part Diamond Circulate as Points slide together and Trade to end in the furthest Center position. A normal Diamond ends in a Two-Faced Line.

The Diamond formation can have a different name, depending upon facing direction of the outside dancers:

 Single 1/4 Tag Formation
 Single 3/4 Tag Formation

There is a subtle difference between the footprints of Twin Diamonds and a Generalized 1/4 Tag Formation.

 Twin Diamonds
 Generalized 1/4 Tag Formation
The exact position of the Outside dancers is dependent upon their facing direction. For Twin Diamonds, the outsides are equidistant between the centers on their side; whereas for a Generalized 1/4 Tag, the outsides are immediately adjacent (holding hands). While dancing, the formation can shift between these two formations.

A Diamond formation is contained within a 2 x 3 matrix. A Diamond is 2-spots in width, and 3-spots in length.

2 x 3 Matrix:

 RIGHT(length = 3 spots)
2 x 4 Matrix:

 WRONG(length = 4 spots)

Square Breathing is a term used to indicate that dancer positions dynamically change as formations expand and contract. See example below:

 This is the starting formationfor each of the following: afterCenters Hinge WRONG(without Square Breathing)Outsides did not adjust afterCenters Hinge RIGHT(with Square Breathing)Outsides moved 1/2 position inwardand 1/2 position forward or backwardto form perfect Diamonds

Drop direction [C2] (Lee Kopman 1975): From a Diamond or Generalized Single 1/4 Tag with the Centers in a Mini-Wave. Centers do your part of Extend the Tag as the Others 1/4 toward the given direction (relative to the 4-dancer formation). Adjust to end in a 2 x 2.