Definitions of Square Dance Calls and Concepts
Concentric Concept [C1]

From 8-dancer formations consisting of 4 inside dancers and 4 outside dancers.

The inside 4 dancers do the given call working within the Center of the set as the outside 4 dancers do the given call working with each other, around the outside of the set.

Notes:
• A good way to think about Concentric is to imagine dropping a stone in a pool of still water and watching the concentric rings rippling outward from the center where the stone dropped. If you overlay that image in your mind on top of the square, the Center 4 dancers would be working within the innermost ring, and the Outside 4 dancers would be working between the innermost ring and the next outside ring. Each group of 4 works independently of the other group of 4, maintaining their respective relationship from the other group and the very center of the set.
• The inside 4 dancers always do the call normally working in the Center.
• The ending positions for the outside 4 dancers depends upon the kind of formation (explained below).

 (A) If the given call ends in a 1x4, a Diamond, or a Single 1/4 Tag, then there is only one possible ending formation: a 1x4 is split in half, and distributed as two 1x2 formations on opposite sides of the inside dancers; a Diamond or Single 1/4 Tag is split into 4 pieces, and distributed like the points of a Galaxy.

The above formations show the ending positions for the outside dancers when the given call ends in a 1x4 or a Diamond. The dashed boxes represent the Center 4 dancers who could be in a 2x2 (as shown), a 1x4 (horizontal or vertical), or any other 4-dancer formation.

 beforeOutsides Concentric Pass The Ocean after
 beforeOutsides Concentric Switch To A Diamond after

 (B) For the outside 4 dancers, if the given call starts and ends in a 2x2 then the following rules apply:If the outside 4 started as if they were Ends of Parallel Lines, then they must finish so that they are Ends of Parallel Lines.Similarly, if the outside 4 started as if they were Ends of Columns, then they must finish so that they are Ends of Columns. The two rules above are known as the 'Lines-to-Lines, Columns-to-Columns' rule. That is, if you start in Parallel Lines, you must end in Parallel Lines; if you start in Columns, you must end in Columns. Note that the final formation may not actually be Lines or Columns, since the Centers may end T-Boned to the Ends.

Examples of formations in which the Outside 4 dancers "think" they are Ends of Lines:

Examples of formations in which the Outside 4 dancers "think" they are Ends of Columns:

Outsides Concentric Walk & Dodge:

 beforeOutsidesConcentric Walk & Dodge after
 beforeOutsidesConcentric Walk & Dodge after

Outsides Concentric Partner Tag:

 beforeOutsidesConcentric Partner Tag after
 beforeOutsidesConcentric Partner Tag after

 (C) For the outside 4 dancers, if the given call does not start in a 2x2 but ends in a 2x2 then the following rule applies:The Outside 4 must end in the positions so that the long axis of the setup changes by 90°. Many formations in square dancing have a long axis and a short axis. That is, the formation is visibly longer in one direction (long axis) than the other direction (short axis). When dancing the Concentric Concept, if the outside 4 do not start in a 2x2, but end in a 2x2, then they must end on the footprints which change the original long axis of the formation by 90°.

 beforeOutsidesConcentric Recycle after
 beforeOutsidesConcentric Hinge after

Concentric Bend The Line:

 RIGHT WRONG beforeConcentric Bend The Line after This ending formation is incorrectsince the long-axis did not change
Concentric Turn & Deal:

 RIGHT WRONG beforeConcentric Turn & Deal after This ending formation is incorrectsince the long-axis did not change
Concentric Linear Cycle:

 RIGHT WRONG beforeConcentric Linear Cycle after Ending here feels 'right' butis incorrect since thelong-axis did not change

Concentric Touch 1/4: (using the Lines-to-Lines, Columns-to-Columns rule)

 beforeConcentric Touch 1/4 after
 beforeConcentric Touch 1/4 after

Concentric Chase Right: (using the Lines-to-Lines, Columns-to-Columns rule)

 beforeConcentric Chase Right after
 beforeConcentric Chase Right after

More notes:
• As soon as you hear the word 'Concentric', check to see if you are in Lines or Columns. If you are not in either Lines or Columns, check the orientation of your long axis.

Single Concentric Concept [C4]: From a 1 x 4 or other applicable 4-dancer formations. Centers work with each other to do the given call as Ends work around the Centers to do the given call.

 beforeSingle ConcentricSingle Wheel after